Immune System : Parts, Immunity, White Blood Cells

immune system

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Immune System and its Parts, Immunity, White Blood Cells

What is Immune system?

The immune system is the workforce of our body to resist any foreign or domestic threats. There are different collection of systems and processes to protect against any bacterial, viral, parasitic or any other bodies.

Immune System and its Parts, Immunity, White Blood Cells

Key Points

Consequently, system needed to be potential enough to damage almost all the foreign harmful bodies which can infect and also required to distinguish their own body’s tissues.

The body requires to recover after any injury so the immunity of our body requires to be so healthy to defeat and conquer any fight .

The protein cells and tissues network consistently work upon to look for foreign invaders to spot basically the enemies which can attack your body with mounted up complexities.

Therefore, the immunity of the body recognizes the dead, vestigial and faulty cells for proper body functionality and immune response.

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Parts of the Immune System

The immune system consists of lymphoid organs that are thymus glands, white blood cells, lymph nodes, leukocytes, spleen and bone marrow.

Lymph Nodes

These are the bean-shaped small cells that further store and produce cells that could fight disease or any infection. The colorless and clear liquid called lymph pass through the body tissues.

Therefore, Lymph and blood together transport the immune elements to the whole body to execute their immune related jobs. These nodes might taste sore and enlarged.

Leukocytes

These are the arms of our innate immune system, these are the white blood systems that are capable of identifying and eliminating disease-causing pathogens.

Leukocytes

However, high white blood Cell count is called leukocytes. The leukocytes consist of phagocytes like dendritic cells, neutrophils and macrophages, basophils, eosinophils and mast cells.

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White Blood cells Immune System

The white blood is soldiers assigned to battle with the troubles. There are two different types called lymphocytes and phagocytes. The phagocytic cells run throughout the blood vessels to ingest the invaders.

White Blood cells Immune System

Certainly, they target toxic and disease-causing organisms. Organisms sometimes produce naturally a poison for the protection purpose. After absorbing the pathogens, they send a signal through chemicals to lymphocytes to identify the pathogen type for further future.

Lymphocytes are of three types

Probably, Natural killer cells, T cells and B cells. B cells are responsible for creating antibodies to attack the pathogens entering the body. T cells almost kill the infected cells. The natural killer cells kill the cells through a special chemical or enzyme.

The body creates antibodies whenever new antigen enters the body. If the similar antigens infect for next time, the body can resist easily, as there are copies of antibodies to destroy the invaders. A single blood drop can retain up to 25,000 white blood cells.

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Spleen

It’s the largest lymphatic organ of our body. Under the ribs on the left side, just above the stomach. It consists of white blood cells to fight any disease or infection. It also controls the blood amount in our body and also disposes of the damaged and aged blood cells.

bacteria

Bone marrow

The tissues present in the center of bone which produces white blood cells. Immature cells known as stem cells basically produced by the spongy tissues present in the thigh and hip bones.

Thymus

It’s an overlooked organ of our immune system having mature T cells, it’s a leaf-like organ present beneath the breastbone. Therefore, the part is to maintain antibody production which could even lead to muscle weakness.

It’s an interesting fact to know that thymus is quite large in infants and grows up to puberty, then with age shrink slowly and is replaced by fat.

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Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Now, it’s important to know the fact that our immune system can be sorted broadly into an innate and adaptive immunity system. In other words, the innate system is the immunity we are born with, naturally, our body consists of barriers against the foreign threats which is not against any specific target.

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Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Firstly, the innate immune components interleukin-1 and interferon found in skin, enzymes, mucus and acids. Secondly, the adaptive immunity is the acquired one that targets to act upon some specific threats.

However, the complex immunity developed to recognize the threat of proper processing. Thus, after neutralizing the risk factors the system requirements to remember, so that they can make sure that in future they can resist more efficiently.

Active immunity and Passive Immunity

Humans generate their own antibodies itself is known as an active immune system that cannot be developed immediately and but it can last for lifetime.

The antibodies acquired from any other external source are known as passive immunity can be developed immediately and it can last for few days only.

Passive immunity is basically an active ready-made antibody. Most importantly, maternal immunity is conveyed from mother to fetus through the placenta is one of the naturally acquired passive immunity.

Active immunity and Passive Immunity

The artificially acquired passive immunity is generally for the treatment of acute infections due to any poison. But for the artificially acquired immunity body can’t develop a memory so the person can be infected by the same pathogen again in the future.

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Active immunity is induced after any critical exposure to any disease due to any foreign organism. The body itself develops the immune system to respond when exposed to the antigen.

Moreover, it provides for extremely long-lasting protection. It substantially guarantees for various virus and bacterial attacks.

Immunopathology towards viruses

Every individual has different consequences when exposed to different viral infections. The outcome of viral infection depends upon the route of infection mostly. Meanwhile outcomes are influenced by different factors like polymorphism, gene mutation, chemokine receptors, cytokines and persistent infection. In conclusion host induces various anti-inflammatory actions to reduce the risk of tissue damages due to infection.

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Sushmita Sen

Sushmita Sen: